Most experts have assumed that the cells inside humans and the organelles have been completely mapped. However, it seems, it still has many surprises in store. A team of experts has found an unexpected structure hidden inside an organelle. It has been hidden in plants for decades. This organelle is known as the peroxisome. This is a bubble-like membrane, which is full of a granular protein matrix called a lumen. Experts have said these are not essential machinery cells but play a crucial role in breaking down and synthesizing molecules. Experts have been able to find vesicles inside the peroxisomes of plant cells. Until now, they have never thought an organelle can have something like this. Experts have said that peroxisomes glide around the cells of all multicellular organisms. It removes reactive molecules, which carry oxygen, and helps split fat.
The team has revealed that in humans and mammals they exist in only 0.1 micrometers, which are hard to be identified with high-power microscopes. A biochemist Zachary Wright from Rice University has said that peroxisomes are smaller than the resolution of light in yeast and mammalian cells. The team of experts has said that it can be seen as a small dot with a fluorescence microscope. Wright has come across this surprising structure of the plant cells while he has been examining the plant called Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis is a type of watercress, which has very large peroxisomes. Experts have said that during the seedlings, they can go up to be 9 to 12 micrometers, which can be easily seen by the microscope. They have said they are large enough to be looked inside as well. The author of the paper has said that bright fluorescent proteins in sync with much bigger peroxisomes in Arabidopsis have allowed him to see it clearly and made it quite evident.
Experts have seen many other membranes inside the organelle along with normal membrane. These multiple membranes are known as vesicles. These vesicles glide through the lumen. Vesicles are utilized in transporting molecules around the cell or inside the organelle. They store the molecules tucked away in a water cocoon, therefore they are not able to react with other parts of the cell. Experts have claimed that the findings of the study might be able to answer fundamental questions about the function and evolution of peroxisomes. They have said that there is a need for further studies to confirm that the newly discovered peroxisome vesicles exist in humans as well.